Thursday, May 21, 2020

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper - 5425 Words

Introduction According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the projected lifetime risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is 8.7% by the age of 75 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). While 8.7% may not initially seem like much, that is almost 28 million people living in the United States who could develop PTSD by the time they turn 75. The most disconcerting aspect about this statistic is that it does not include other factors that increase the risk of developing PTSD. The DSM-V diagnostic criteria for PTSD expanded the scope of PTSD diagnosis by no longer requiring the individual to fear for one’s life when exposed to a traumatic event; this illustrates just how important a†¦show more content†¦Even though nationally representative epidemiologic information on PTSD is difficult to gather, the literature seems to keep growing. Trauma exposure effects psychological and physical health, along with cognitive and social funct ioning. Even though they experience traumatic events, some youths do not seem to experience any harmful outcomes. While others, especially youths who experience multiple events are significantly at risk. Youth trauma exposure is linked to PTSD and a myriad of other psychological problems. More extreme forms of and more experiences of trauma correlate with higher rates of psychopathology. Cognitive functions are also affected by exposure to trauma. In maltreated youths with PTSD, trauma exposure has been associated with attention and problem-solving. Youths who were exposed to urban violence showed lower school attendance and lower grades, along with decreased reading ability and IQ. Impaired self-esteem and disrupted interpersonal relationships are a few of the negative social-emotional outcomes associated with trauma exposure (Davies-Mercier et al., 2017). Lower socioeconomic adolescent males have increased risk of trauma exposure, even though males have reported higher rates of tr auma exposure, females have reported higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Youths are not the only group of people that are negatively affected by traumatic events and PTSD. In adults, some negative outcomes ofShow MoreRelatedPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper6725 Words   |  27 PagesAbstract Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a widespread disorder that affects certain individuals psychologically, behaviorally, and emotionally following the experience of a traumatic event (Lee et al., 2005, p. 135). However, because of inconsistencies regarding the percentage of individuals who experience PTSD and the percentage of individuals who subsequently develop PTSD, researchers hypothesize that both biological and environmental factors contribute to the development of PTSD (WolfRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper975 Words   |  4 PagesThe topic of this paper is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) viewed and discussed through a trauma theory lens. PTSD is typically associated with veteran and military personnel; in fact, one in six Army and Marine veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and women are more than twice as likely to develop the disorder than man (Satcher, Tepper, Thrashwer, Rachel, 2012). Although usually associ ated with the military, PTSD affects many different facets of the populationRead MorePost-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder Research Paper757 Words   |  3 Pages   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Post-traumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD) is part of many veteran’s lives in the U.S. today. PTSD is a serious mental and emotional disorder that people often don’t understand or don’t know about. It’s defined as a mental illness that develops after a person has lived through a traumatizing event, such as sexual assault, physical abuse, threat of death, or serious injury. Most people who experience a distressing event don’t develop PTSD, but for those who do, it’s extremely terrifying to go throughRead MoreDreaming and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Connection974 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction According to the dictionary diagnosis in PsychCentral, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is defined as a â€Å"debilitating mental disorder that follows experiencing or witnessing an extremely traumatic, tragic, or terrifying event† (PTSD Info Treatment, 2013). While this definition describes the general definition of PTSD, the DSM-IV states that the criteria for being diagnosed with PTSD varies between a person who â€Å"experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involvedRead More Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay1420 Words   |  6 Pagesof psychiatric disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV). One of them is called Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on the research, post-traumatic disorder usually occurs following the experience or witnessing of life-threatening events such as military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious accidents, or violent personal assaults like rape (Harvard Women’s Health Watch, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to discussRead MoreResearch Based Interventions Paper1727 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ Research- Based Intervention on Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder Erica Mariscal Vigil PSYCH 650 Dr. Harry Beaman 05/25/15 Research- Based Intervention on Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder According to Butcher, Mineka, and Hooley (2013), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), is a â€Å"disorder that occurs following an extreme traumatic event, in which a person re-experiences the event, avoids reminders of the trauma, and exhibits persistent increased arousal†. An example may be, a person whoRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )989 Words   |  4 Pages Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Sarah Batson Eastern Florida State College, Melbourne CLP 2140 03M Abstract In today s society, it has become prevalent that the amount of individuals suffering from mental illnesses is rapidly increasing. This paper will focus on one of the disorders associated with mental illness – Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The introduction will define and describe the disorder, and the following paragraphs will discuss causes, symptoms, target populationsRead MoreMethods of Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay924 Words   |  4 PagesWhen humans undergo traumatic events that threaten their safety and wellbeing, they may become vulnerable to nightmares, fear, excessive anxiety, depression, and trembling. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychological illness that results from the occurrence of a â€Å"terribly frightening, life-threatening, or otherwise unsafe experience† (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), 2012). This condition often leads to unbearable stress and anxiety. PTSD is significantly prevalent as indicatedRead MoreIntr oduction. In This Paper, I Am Going To Talk About Acute1159 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction In this paper, I am going to talk about Acute Stress Disorder and how it affects the daily lives of people who have it. What exactly is Acute Stress Disorder? According to Steve Bressert, a doctor in philosophy, ASD is: Acute Stress Disorder is characterized by the development of severe anxiety, dissociative, and other symptoms that occurs within one month after exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor (e.g., witnessing a death or serious accident). As a response to the traumatic event, theRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1321 Words   |  6 Pages Post-traumatic stress disorder also known as PTSD. Post-traumatic stress disorder is developed from a scary, dangerous or shocking events. For example, a soldier exposed to a near death experience or a scary event overseas could cause that person to be diagnose with PTSD. Also another example, could be someone in Miami experiencing a category 5 hurricane and have everything taken away from them. Research on OEF/OIF Veterans suggests that 10% to 18% of OEF/OIF troops are likely to have PTSD after

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Imagery in Macbeth - 1147 Words

One thing every culture, religion, race, and country has in common is the blood that runs through its people’s veins. No one is a stranger to blood, and its universality allows many authors to utilize it as effective imagery in their literary works. British playwright William Shakespeare uses blood imagery in many of his plays, one prevalent example being Macbeth. In Macbeth, Shakespeare uses blood imagery to symbolize guilt, foreshadow negative events, and develop Macbeth as a tragic hero. In his famous tragedy Macbeth, Shakespeare uses blood imagery to symbolize the guilt of both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. For example, as soon as he murders King Duncan, Macbeth, regretful and guilt-ridden, says,  ¨Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash†¦show more content†¦Cassandra Nelson, an assistant to the Provost at Boston University with an English PhD, states in the Encyclopedia of Themes in Literature that Macbeth â€Å"...feels changed, tainted, by what he has done. He describes his guilt as a stain that he cannot wash off, for it would sooner color the whole world than fade from his skin†. Shakespeare also uses blood to symbolize Lady Macbeth’s initial lack of guilt. After Macbeth kills Duncan and is wracked with guilt, Lady Macbeth tells him he can wash off the blood with a little water (2.2.65). This shows Lady Macbeth’s lack of remorse at this point in the play. Later on, after Lady Macbeth learns that her husband killed Macduffâ€℠¢s wife and children, a doctor and a gentlewoman in Dunsinane hear her say, â€Å"The thane of Fife had a wife. where is she now? - What, / Will these hands ne’er be clean?† (5.1.36-37). This shows how Lady Macbeth has transformed from ruthless and guiltless after Duncan’s murder to guilt-ridden, haunted by her metaphorically blood-covered hands. This is reiterated later in the same scene when Lady Macbeth says, â€Å"Here’s the smell of the blood still. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand† (5.1.42-43). As well as using blood imagery to symbolize guilt, Shakespeare uses it to add a foreboding sense to Macbeth. While mulling over his and his wife’s plot to kill Duncan, Macbeth foreshadows his own downfall by saying,Show MoreRelatedMacbeth - Imagery in Macbeth1331 Words   |  6 Pageshe uses many forms of imagery. Imagery, the art of making images, the products of imagination. In the play Macbeth Shakespeare applie s the imagery of clothing, darkness and blood. (listed from least to most), Each detail is his imagery, it seems to contain an important symbol of the play. Symbols that the reader must understand if they are to interpret either the passage or the play as a whole. Within the play Macbeth the imagery of clothing portrays that Macbeth is seeking to hide hisRead MoreImagery in Macbeth848 Words   |  4 PagesImagery in Macbeth â€Å"Violence and the bloodshed that results are important symbols in Shakespeare’s Macbeth. While the blood that is shed is a tangible reminder of the outcomes of misused power, it also serves as an image that provokes Macbeth to reflect upon his deeds, even if he does not change his behavior. Macbeth becomes obsessed with the blood on his hands. Unfortunately, this reminder of his guilt does not prevent him from continuing violent acts.† -Marshall Mc Luhan. Macbeth, one of theRead MoreThe Use Of Imagery In Macbeth1428 Words   |  6 PagesImagery is defined as a vehicle to represent objects, ideas, and actions using figurative language, in a way that appeals to our physical senses, Shakespeare was an expert at employing this technique in his works, with one of his most famous and renowned, Macbeth, using this device to perfection. Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, illustrating the psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Shakespeare utilizes imagery numerous times throughoutRead MoreMacbeth Imagery Blood1442 Words   |  6 PagesBlood Imagery in Macbeth Shakespeare’s plays are well known for the richness of their imagery. This is particularly true in Macbeth and the many allusions to blood. The use of blood imagery gives the reader some foresight into what is going on in the play and how the characters are thinking and feeling. Blood is used to represent heroics on the battlefield, evil and murderous inclinations, and ultimately guilt and shame. Shakespeare uses the symbol of blood to give the readers insight intoRead MoreImagery in Macbeth Essay669 Words   |  3 PagesImagery in Macbeth Shakespeares powerful imagery has never been more apparent than in Macbeth. He begins the play with a startling image of three witches chanting in a furious thunderstorm, Fair is foul, and foul is fair. Hover through the fog and filthy air (1.1.10-11). The eerie chanting creates a dark, mysterious tone that leaves the reader feeling uncomfortable and expecting odd and evil things to happen. Later, when Macbeth and Banquo come across the three weirdRead MoreBlood Imagery in Macbeth857 Words   |  4 Pagesevident as the bloody hands of Macbeth and his obsession with them. Macbeth has killed King Duncan and doesn’t stop there, he kills the guards making Duncan’s sons flee. This gives Macbeth the throne. However he becomes overwhelmed with the guilt. Shakespeare uses blood to show how it reminds Macbeth of the violent acts he has committed and how he has become obsessed with the blood on his hands. Initially the blood represents courage and bravery. For brave Macbeth-well he deserves that name- â€Å"disdainingRead MoreMacbeth - Blood Imagery in Macbeth Essay990 Words   |  4 PagesWilliam Shakespeare wrote the Tragedy of Macbeth in approximately 1606 AD. He loosely based it on a historical event occurring around 1050 AD. Macbeth is the story of a nobleman, who, while trying to fulfill a prophecy told to him by three witches, murders his King to cause his ascension to the throne of Scotland. After the Kings murder, Macbeth reigns as a cruel and ruthless tyrant, who is forced to kill more people to keep control of the throne. Finally, Scottish rebels combined with English forcesRead MoreDarkness Imagery In Macbeth Essay899 Words   |  4 Pagesare the basic elements in William Shakespeares Macbeth. Macbeth is a tragedy which was written by Shakespeare in the Elizabethan Era. There was much use of Raphael Holinsheds Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland as it was neces sary for creating the environments and situations in the play. Macbeth takes place mainly in Scotland and is a play about an ambitious thane, named Macbeth, and his wife whose flaws lead to their demise. Since Macbeth is a tragedy, probably nothing else would be asRead More Darkness Imagery In Macbeth Essays909 Words   |  4 PagesDarkness Imagery in William Shakespeares Macbeth nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Ambition and evil are the basic elements in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth. Macbeth is a tragedy which was written by Shakespeare in the Elizabethan Era. There was much use of Raphael Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland as it was necessary for creating the environments and situations in the play. Macbeth takes place mainly in Scotland and is a play about an ambitious thane, named Macbeth, and hisRead MoreEssay on Images and Imagery in Macbeth939 Words   |  4 PagesImagery in Macbeth      Ã‚  Ã‚   Darkness, disorder, mayhem, fear, guilt, and hypocrisy are all important themes carried throughout William Shakespeares Macbeth by the effective use of imagery in reference to ill-fitting clothing, blood, and light verses dark. Imagery in this play tiptoes its way though every scene to create a malevolent atmosphere of shame and false pretenses.    The contrast between light and dark during Macbeth clearly relates to the conflict between good and

Disgrace Essay Free Essays

In Disgrace by J. M. Coetzee we are introduced to David Lurie, the protagonist and narrator of this novel. We will write a custom essay sample on Disgrace Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now David Lurie is a 52 year old divorced man, who lives in Cape Town, South Africa, as a respected romantic poetry professor at a university. His life is full of sexual, non-committed relationships. After being accused of inappropriate behavior with a student, Lurie loses his job at the university and must move in with his daughter, Lucy, in the country. Throughout the novel we see many references to animals, especially in relation to Lurie. Because he is the narrator of the novel, these animal references lead the reader to believe Lurie is describing himself through these animals. Lurie uses descriptions of animals as a way to describe how he feels about himself. We see Lurie go from a sexually charged predator, to a strange beast who has been hunter, to a dog-man, and then finally to a helpless dog who is ready to be put out of his misery. David Lurie is a predator at the beginning of the novel. He is a man searching for sex, and for the most part he is successful at it. His first sexual interest he introduces us to is Soraya, a prostitute who he has been going to see for a long time. Lurie describes them having sex by comparing them to snakes engaged in intercourse, â€Å"lengthy, absorbed, but rather abstract, rather dry, even at its hottest† (Coetzee 5 ). Being the narrator, this shows the reader how David views himself, as well as Soraya, as cold, scary, almost evil, creatures, like snakes. Snakes give off a very negative emotion because they are dangerous animals, and this comparison leads us to believe David too must be a dangerous animal. Soraya eventually tries to cut ties with David, but David being the predator he is cannot let his prey go. He is able to find Soraya’s home phone number and when he calls her she is livid he would cross that line. â€Å"But then, what should a predator expect when he intrudes into the vixen’s nest, into the home of her cubs? † (Coetzee 10). Soraya is a mother, and feels like David calling her home is going to be a threat to her family, especially her children. The next instance where we see David describing himself as a predator is during his first sexual encounter with his student, Melanie. David is very persistent in sleeping with Melanie, and once he has finally chased her down he describes the experience as â€Å"like a rabbit when the jaws of the fox close on its neck† (Coetzee 25). He is well aware by making this statement that Melanie does not want to be in this situation with him, but he does not care, he has been chasing this prey for too to just let it go. This is not the last time David engages Melanie regardless of her strong reluctance however, and Melanie eventually has enough and reports Lurie to the University where he teaches. David Lurie goes from being the predator, to now being the one who is being chased. He is being chased by the University committee who is investigating David’s indiscretions with Melanie. The committee is described by Lurie as â€Å"hunters who have cornered a strange beast and do not know how to finish it off. † (Coetzee 56). The tables have turned and Lurie is now this strange beast that has been hunted down. David refuses to apologize however, and instead loses his job. Lurie could have simply said sorry for his actions and he would have had a chance to keep his position at the University, but in his mind he did not do anything wrong. He compares himself an old neighbor’s dog, saying that every time a â€Å"bitch† would be in the yard the dog would become so excitable that he could not be controlled. The dog was not allowed to go through with his natural desires, which caused the dog to act strange and just run around the garden â€Å"with its ears flat and its tail between its legs, whining, trying to hide. (Coetzee 69 ). David sees himself in this dog, he is being punished and being told he is not allowed to do something that feels so natural to him. He says that the dog would have preferred to be shot over being denied its natural urges. David chose to be shot (lose his job) when he refuses to express that he did anything wrong by sleeping with Melanie. After losing his job David must go live with his daughter, Lucy, out in the cou ntry. While living with Lucy, David goes through a lot, and through helping take care of her dogs we see a softer side of him through his descriptions of these dogs. â€Å"The dogs are brought to the clinic because they are unwanted,† (Coetzee 146) Lurie says. He cares about the dogs because he too feels unwanted. â€Å"Well, now he has become a dog-man. † (Coetzee 146) David is one with these dogs, abandoned and miserable, unable to live the lives they want to be living. The dogs and David are trapped out in the country on a farm just waiting for the end. David finally does give up and we see this through his decision to put down the dog that he had become very close to, Driepoot, the young dog David â€Å"has come to feel a particular fondness for† (Coetzee 214-215). David had bonded with Driepoot, even signing his Opera to the dog at one point. He felt sorry for Driepoot, he felt very much like the dog. In the end of the novel, by choosing Driepoot to be put down â€Å"a (his, the dog’s) time must come, it cannot be evaded† and carries the dog, â€Å"the one who likes music† (Coetzee 219), to Bev where he will be killed. In the last sentence of the novel David states that he is â€Å"giving him up† (Coetzee 220), which is essentially David stating the he is the one giving up. Like Driepoot, David Lurie is being put out of his misery. David Lurie’s life goes through dramatic changes throughout the novel Disgrace. A once respected professor, he becomes â€Å"a mad old man who sits among the dogs singing to himself. † (Coetzee 218). Lurie uses descriptions of animals as a way to describe how he feels about himself. He goes from a predator whose main focus in life is satisfying his sexual desires, to a man who feels like a ‘strange beast’ that has been hunted by the University. David then turns to his daughter’s farm where he begins working with dogs and we see a softer David Lurie, a man who feels like the abandoned dogs who are waiting for their end to come. By the end of Disgrace we see that David is ready to accept his own end, he wants to be put out of his misery just like he does for the dog he has bonded so much with. Works Cited Coetzee, J. M. Disgrace. New York: Penguin, 1999. Print. How to cite Disgrace Essay, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Life In The 1900S Essays (1212 words) - Wright Brothers,

Life In The 1900'S Life in the 1900's was depressing and was an era filled with extremely hard and strenous work that didn't offer any future for the average canadian in doing better. If you were an average wage earner you would be virtually stuck in the same job for the rest of your life, while rich maintained their wealth mainly caused by the low taxes. Living conditions were poor for average canadians and even worse for the arriving immigrants. At this time some of the modern convienences were just being invented and even if it were for sale only the extremely rich had the option of purchasing the items. Sports being very new, in the aspect of it being organized was small time compared to present day. Travelling required time and was uncomfortable. Only the rich could have the luxurious accomadations for those long journeys. Many jobs were available to most people but you were under constant scrutiny while working and would have to be willing to do any thing the boss wanted. I believe my friends and I would most likely resent and despise it if we had to live in the 1900's. During the 1900's horses played a significant role in the everyday life. A horse drawn carriage would bring a docter to the house of where a baby would be born. A hearse was pulled by horses to the cemetery when somebody died. Farmers used them to pull their ploughs while town dwellers kept them for transportation around town. Horses puled delivery wagons for businesses such as bakery, dairy, and coal company. Horses pulled fire engines through the streets in a fire emergency. The bicycle was widely accepted by canadians because of its easy maintence compared to a horse. The bike allowed an option of transportation. The bicycle also gave a sense of freedom to virtually anybody willing to learn. Henry Ford revolutionized the world we live in by inventing the horseless carriage, if it had not been for him, instead of taking the GO bus in the morning we'd be riding a horse named Wanda. Not only did his inventio n offer a method of transportation to the public, but it helped with our emergency services such as fire engines, police cars, and ambulances. Now we have a large variety of cars to choose from varying in size and price. He also brought a large profitable industry to North America...The car industry. Back then there weren't many problems that they created. Today, we have our deteriorating ozone layer, poisonous chemicals that come from exhaust fumes (CO2)(Carbon Monoxide). Not to mention the traffic accidents, parking problems and traffic jams in downtown Toronto. 11 years previous to WW I Orville and Wilbur Wright made a successful flight in the first airplane at the beach of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Although the flight only lasted 12 seconds it would change the way we see the world. The telephone allowed the houseneeds to be satisfied without leaving they're homes. Women received an oppurtunity to work as a a switch board operator. I don't know if I can stress the importance of Marconi's invention enough. But I can say, that without it not only would there be no T.V. or radio there would be a lot of unemployed people right now(even more unemployed than now!!!). The reason for that is radio provides people with jobs such as DJ's, musical programmers etc. Also, radio is a major form of advertising, without it there would not be as many advertising agencies or as many positions in this field. Without T.V., advertising agencies would also face the same consequences. T.V. provides millions of people with employment in commercials, T.V. shows, and movies. Baseball was the most popular sport in the United States where the World Series began in 1903. Tom Longboat was born in Brantford, Ontario and was known for outrunning a horse over a 19 km coarse. He set a record of 2 hours, 24 min and 24 seconds when he ran the Boston Marathon. Jan 22/1901 Queen Victoria died at the age of 63 years. The Queens reign stretched across the globe. With her death came modernization. In the early 1900's horses were being

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

jaws essays

jaws essays Name of film: Jaws The film Jaws directed by Steven Spielberg is an example of a film done in the Classical Narrative structure. This is so because it has the three basic elements of the classical structure: setup, confrontation, and resolution. The film jaws is about a Chief Brody, who moves to Amity Island, a summer beach town, from New York. During his first summer, Brody is faced with shark attacks. His first reaction is to close the beaches, but the Mayor will not let him do that. The chief, along with marine biologist Hooper, and shark hunter Quint, go out onto the water and hunt the shark. The setup in this film occurs at the beginning, when the first victim of the shark is taken. A girl is swimming in the ocean, and is attacked by the shark. This is Brodys first encounter with a shark, and leaves him with the question of what to do? The confrontation is between the three men, Brody, Hooper, and Quint, and the shark. All three men have their own reason to get the shark, brody wants safe beaches, Hooper wants to study it, and Quint wants money. The three men go out on Quints boat, and hunt the shark. The rising action is when they plug the shark with barrels. The climax occurs when the shark makes its final attack on the boat, and leaps onto the back of the boat. The resolution comes when Chief Brody climbs to the mast of the Orca, after he shoves an oxygen tank into the sharks mouth. On top of the mast he shoots the tank and blows the shark up. The Protagonist of the film is Chief Brody, because he wants to protect the people of Amity Island. One interesting editing sequence found in the film was when the beach was cleared out for a false shark sighting on the fourth of July. I liked when the scene cut from the people screaming, and running out of the water, to the shot where the camera w ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Ancient Flutes, Evidence of Prehistoric Music Making

Ancient Flutes, Evidence of Prehistoric Music Making Ancient flutes made of animal bone or carved from mammoth (extinct elephant) ivory are among the earliest examples of the use of ancient music- and one of the key recognized measures of behavioral modernity for modern human beings. The earliest forms of ancient flutes were made to be played like a modern recorder, that is held vertically. They were most often constructed from the hollow bones of animals, particularly bird wing bones. Bird bones are extremely well-suited for making flutes, as they are already hollow, thin and strong, so that they may be perforated without too much danger of fracturing. Later forms, carved from mammoth ivory, involve a greater grasp of the technology, including carving out the tubular form into two pieces and then fitting the pieces together with some adhesive, perhaps bitumen. Oldest Possible Ancient Flute The oldest possible bone flute discovered to date comes from a Middle Paleolithic site in Slovenia, the Divje Babe I site, a Neanderthal occupation site with Mousterian artifacts. The flute came from a stratigraphic level dated to 43,000 /- 700 RCYBP, and it was made on a juvenile cave bear femur. The Divje Babe I flute, if thats what it is, has two roughly circular holes punctured into it, and three more damaged potential holes. The layer has other gnawed cave bear bones, and some detailed scholarly research into the bones taphonomy- that is to say, the wear and markings on the bone- lead some scholars to conclude that this flute likely resulted from carnivore gnawing. Hohle Fels Flutes The Swabian Jura is an area in Germany where ivory figurines and debris from their production have been identified in numbers from the Upper Paleolithic levels. Three sites- Hohle Fels, Vogelherd, and Geißenklà ¶sterle- have produced flute fragments, all dated between about 30,000-40,000 years ago. In 2008, one nearly complete flute and two other flute fragments were discovered at the Hohle Fels Upper Paleolithic site, located in the Swabian Jura. The longest of these was made on the wing bone of a griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). Discovered in 12 pieces and reassembled, the bone measures 21.8 centimeters (8.6 inches) long and about 8 millimeters (~1/3 of an inch) in diameter. The Hohle Fels flute has five finger holes and the blowing end has been deeply notched. Two other fragmented flutes found at Hohle Fels are made of ivory. The longest fragment is 11.7 mm (.46 in) in length, and oval (4.2x1.7 mm, or .17x.07 in) in cross-section; the other is 21.1 mm (.83 in) and also oval (7.6 mm x 2.5 mm, or .3x.1 in) in cross-section. Other Flutes Two other sites from the Swabian Jura in Germany have produced ancient flutes. Two flutes- one bird bone and one made up of ivory fragments- have been recovered from the Aurignacian levels of the Vogelherd site. The Geißenklà ¶sterle site excavations have recovered three more flutes, one from a swans wing bone, one from a possible swan wing bone, and one from mammoth ivory. A total of 22 bone flutes have been identified at the Isturitz site in the French Pyrenees, most from later Upper Paleolithic proveniences, circa 20,000 years bp. The Jiahu site, a Neolithic Peiligang culture site in China dating between ca. 7000 and 6000 BC, contained several bone flutes. Sources Taphonomy of a suggested MChase PG, and Nowell A. 1998. Paleolithic bone flute from Slovenia.iddle Current Anthropology 39(4):549-553.Conard NJ, Malina M, and Munzel SC. 2009. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany. Nature 460(7256):737-740.Fitch WT. 2006. The biology and evolution of music: A comparative perspective. Cognition 100(1):173-215.Higham T, Basell L, Jacobi R, Wood R, Ramsey CB, and Conard NJ. 2012. Testing models for the beginnings of the Aurignacian and the advent of figurative art and music: The radiocarbon chronology of Geissenklosterle. Journal of Human Evolution(0).King S, and Snchez Santiago G. 2011. Soundscapes of the Everyday in Ancient Oaxaca, Mexico. Archaeologies 7(2):387-422.Morley I. 2006. Mousterian musicianship? the case of the Divje Babe I Bone. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 25(4): 317-333.Pettitt PB. 2008. Art and the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition in Europe: Comments on the archaeological arguments for an ear ly Upper Paleolithic antiquity of the Grotte Chauvet art. Journal of Human Evolution 55(5):908-917. Yang X-Y, Kadereit A, Wagner GA, Wagner I, and Zhang J-Z. 2005. TL and IRSL dating of Jiahu relics and sediments: clue of 7th millennium BC civilization in central China. Journal of Archaeological Science 32(7):1045-1051.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Management Strategy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Management Strategy - Research Paper Example Apple was founded in 1976 and the main business idea was to sell personal computers. Being the second largest information technology company by revenue after Samsung, Apple which employs more than 72,000 workers operates 425 retail stores. The company which operates in 14 countries has annual revenue of $182 billion. This paper seeks to discuss the strategic plan for Apple by analyzing its strategy formulation, social responsibility, environmental scanning, and structural leadership among other aspects of the company. A strategic plan is a well documented procedure which is used to communicate with a firm for attainment of goals. The document contains the actions which are used to attain the goals. Additionally, it includes other critical elements that the organization uses during planning. Apple strategic plan is standardized products which attracts the customers globally. Apple also ensures that it keeps loyal customers and encouraging innovation to remain competitive in the market. Apple Company has introduced small and respectable tablets which are best in the market and they do not pollute the environment. Through the use of ipad Mini, Apple has been able to enter the market with small tablets which are respectable and fit in the ecosystem. As compared to Amazon and Google Apple has been able to come up with Operating System (OS) which is unique from that one of Android with a price which is fair to the customers. The strategic plan has been used to attract the customers (Lesca 13). Addition ally, innovation of ipad Mini has made Apple to get the opportunity to attract more customers locally and globally (Calkins, 2012). Due to its emphasis on maintaining ecosystem, Apple has also attained attraction which makes it competitive from competitors like Amazon and Google. Strategic management is a process which is continuous and used for planning, monitoring, analyzing and assessing all what is required for the